This page lists invariants that can be maintained with Rich-CRDTs.

Non nullity

An attribute of an entity cannot have a null value.

Unique identifier

An identifier refers to a single element in a collection.

Uniqueness constraints can be maintained by ensuring disjoin identifier spaces between identifier generators and pseudo-random unique identifier generator.

Unique sequence

An identifier refers to a single element in a collection and new identifiers are generated in a sequence.

Provide a total order between elements that respects the generation order. Identifier generation requires coordination to ensure no gaps in the sequence.

Prefixed unique sequence

An identifier refers to a single element in a collection and new identifiers are created following a prefixed sequence.

Provides a total order of elements generated from a single source without coordination. Relative ordering of identifiers generated in different sources is determined by the prefix.


The value of an object is entirely increasing, or entirely non-decreasing.

In practice, this can be used to ensure that once a value of some variable is set it can’t go back to “smaller” value. For instance, once a flag is set true, no other operation might set it false, or vice versa.

Numerical bounds

Numerical bounds express an inequality against a constant or another variable.

Each side of the inequality can be a single number, or an arithmetic expression. Numerical bounds are typically expressed through CHECK constraints.

Referential integrity

In a relationship where two entities are linked by a uni/bi-directional relation, the entity on the referenced side of the relation must exist.

Relational databases use relations: “belongs to”, “has one/many” and “ManyToMany” to associate entities in a schema.

Tree invariant

A tree is an undirected graph in which any two nodes are connected by exactly one path.

Graphs can have constraints on the connections between nodes. A Tree is a particular graph in which there are no cycles and no multiple paths to the same node. Can be used to represent hierarchical structures, such as filesystems.